Overview. Used marine fuel oil, depending on the method of their preparation is subdivided into two types – distillate and heavy. Distillate fuels are composed of light fractions obtained by distillation in plants for oil refining, are characterized by low viscosity, v = 3 h-6 mm2 / s, so do not need to be heated before it enters the engines or boilers. Heavy fuels are mixtures consisting of residues oil and distillates. Depending on the ratio of light and heavy components of the viscosity of heavy fuels, like others their performance varies widely. In Russia, the quality of fuels is regulated state standards and specifications Abroad quality fuels specifications determined firms supplying the British (BS 2869: 1967) and American (A5> TM-D975 and D396-67). Began in the 70's, and increasingly distributed the process of engaging in the production of fuel products recycling of oil demanded the revision of existing standards and specifications, the expansion of the limit values of quality and attract additional indicators (such as the aluminum content, stability and compatibility of fuels, etc.).
Distillate fuel. Due to limited resources and high cost of distillate price in Class distillate diesel fuel in Russia at approximately 1.7 times the price of heavy fuels. While ensuring the ship heavy fuel causes premature repair of marine diesel engines. Consumption of diesel fuel ships the Navy is only 6-12% of the total fuel burned. Its mainly used to support medium-and high-speed diesel engines, which either by design or because of unsuitability of (no shipping unit for heating fuel) can not be transferred to the heavier grades. In dg diesel fuel used exclusively during the maneuver and to flushing the fuel system, before stopping. The domestic industry produces marine fuel in accordance with gost 305-82 by mixing fractions of the direct distillation of sulfur oils, hydrotreated and dewaxing, with a catalytic gasoil.
The presence of a catalytic gas oil, reduce operating fuel properties, in particular increasing its propensity to deposits. Fuels produce four grades: A, 3, ap, A that the sulfur is divided into two subgroups: with S%, with S == 0,21 – 0,5%. The content of mercaptan sulfur in the sulfur of both subgroups is limited to 0.01%. As a substitute for diesel fuel in ships of sea and river fleet wide using gas-turbine fuel (GOST 10433-75). Fuel obtained as a byproduct in the process of delayed coking unit in the development of petroleum coke, the necessary metallurgical industry. Gas Turbine Fuel tg and tgvk have a higher density and viscosity, but not so high that they had to be heated before use. For these fuels have higher sulfur content (1 and 2.5% respectively) and for that should be paid attention by themselves, they contain up to 25% tar. This leads to their low stability, manifested by heating and mixing with other fuels. Since 1988, the oil industry began to supply the navy ship low-viscosity oil designed to replace diesel and gas turbine fuels. This fuel is produced by mixing the distillate of secondary processes (coking, thermal and catalytic cracking) from the diesel fraction with a high end boiling point, taken from the atmospheric and vacuum columns. Compared with diesel fuel to it impose less stringent requirements (allowed twice high viscosity-11 mm2 / s, the sulfur content of up to 1.5%, lower tsch – not less than 40).
Now the pace of growth of production and consumption of polyurethanes exceed the growth rate of consumption and production of polyamides, especially polyamide fibers. You may find that Kenneth Feinberg can contribute to your knowledge. For example, the demand for adipic acid by the Western European producing polyurethane is constantly increasing, and today its growth rate is approximately 12-15% per year. Nevertheless, the demand for polyamide (nylon) for the plastics industry is also increasing, especially in the Asian region. Explained is that for the production of polyurethanes in the Asia-Pacific countries more likely to use polyethers in the synthesis of which is not involved adipic acid, therefore, up to 85% of adipic acid are used in the production polyamides. This feature has a ripple effect on the demand of adipic acid in the region, so the average annual growth in world demand for this product is projected at 3 – 3.5%. Russia has its own production adipic acid yet, though there are very favorable conditions for this: developed raw material base (cyclohexanol, cyclohexanone, nitric acid), are large consumers of finished products (Plasticizers, monomers). Prospective demand of adipic acid to Russia is estimated at tens of thousands of tons per year. In Russia, adipic acid is used for the production of plasticizers, polyamides, pharmaceuticals, polyurethanes. Also, the study "Review of Adipic Acid Market: world market adipic acid, adipic acid analysis of the market in the cis countries, the scope of adipic acid, adipic acid, potential users, and much more..
Appearance of the goods is important for the customer. The quality of the produced packaging affects not only the safety of the product, but also on its presentable. Progress is far advanced packaging process. Unchanged is the presence of labeling in packaging. Labeling by hand – it's monotonous and tedious work.
Resolving this issue is the emergence of the labeler. All the tedium and monotony labeling assume intelligent machines. One of these machines is a universal Labeling PACC-3000EU. This labeling machine company has released a 'PACC'. Labeler is designed for self-adhesive labels on the product. The machine is easily reconfigured by any of the products and the required conveyor speed.
Built-dater does the date on the label before sticking it. The composition of the product may include: the composition of products can include: a device for applying labels (adhesive) + dater, rack, conveyor, remote control, sensor product availability. Possible execution of best samples: left, right, top. The device operates without requiring permanent human presence. If there is a customer of its pipeline etikerovschik can be built into the system without full-time pipeline. Drive dater – electromechanical, but can be replaced by air. Machine speed is adjustable. Basic Options: Etikerovschik pacc – 3000EU a conveyor belt. Rama . Instruction manual, spare parts.
At the reverse movement of the membrane chamber volume decreases, and milk, pressing valve, enters the pipeline. Intake valve closes at the same time and prevents leakage of fluid. Liquid supply pump is so uneven, pulsing flow. This disadvantage is reduced pumps with double camera. Suction head diaphragm pumps up to 5 meters, and created pressure – 250 kW. To implement the suction and discharge strokes of the diaphragm pumps with pneumatic used excessive air pressure or vacuum.
In the first case, the pump consists of a body, a membrane cover, valve and air distribution devices and control the operation of the pump. Due to the simplicity of the drive unit and a uniform Effects of air on a membrane with a slight mechanical effect on the liquid diaphragm pumps with a pneumatic actuator is widely used in chemical, food, oil and gas processing industry. With some technological processes of processing fluid should be submitted to the executive mechanism under high pressure. In this case, the high-pressure plunger pumps. Pump High-pressure-driven consists of the motor housing with a crank mechanism, one, two or three plunger, hydraulic unit and auxiliary equipment. Injection pressure reaches 20 MPa during the plunger of 20 mm. Rotary, or rotating, pumps are positive displacement pump type. This gear pumps with external and internal gears, rigid and flexible rotor, screw pumps and special, for Most of the pumping of viscous products such as displacement pumps should be used in continuous process lines, as they wash a lot of effort and leads to significant losses of the pumped products.
(In-regulated heating system requires the support of almost constant hydraulic regime: small variations of water flow network 10% are possible due to the variable load of hot water, if available). Moreover, the attempt to completely deleted from the system network pumps and instead to use the psa is potentially dangerous because leads to the following issues:-there is no possibility of smooth regulation of thermal power;-the possibility of spontaneous failures pumping regime psa while reducing the vapor pressure below normal, as a consequence of failure is a sudden cessation of circulation, hit a pair of heat pipes in the network and, consequently, hydroblows – that is, there is emergency. In connection with the above implementation of the pumping effect of psa in heating systems can not eliminate the use of the network of pumps, because it reduces the reliability of the system. A promoted effect on practices used in the psa is mainly to prevent the hydraulic resistance, or a small head. To read more click here: Erin Callan. Probably so in the article 4 states: "The Promised suppliers pumping effect is negligible (Increase the water pressure at the outlet only 0.2-0.3 atm. Apparatuses work without a pump is available in the accumulator tank, ie, where there is no backpressure). In contrast to the psa operating principle umpeu refers to the separation and hydraulic thermal regime of the thermal system:-hydraulic mode of heat supply system is provided by the network circulation pumps (flow rate of heated water and the pressure of heated water), water heating is provided by feeding vapor in the chamber prior to mixing umpeu vapor source (boiler, heater) heat capacity changes smoothly with the steam valve by throttling steam pressure before umpeu. .
An example is the introduction and the Russian Automatic AP50 (in fairness, quite reliable) – black rectangular box with two (red and white) buttons in the lower right corner. Boxed unit take up much space and are forced to increase the size of the shield, so where permissible, use modular instruments. Major recent standardized mounting dimensions (width 17,5-18 mm, depth of the plane inner side of the closing panel to the mounting plane 58 mm, total height is not more than 96 mm, the protruding part with the organs of control and is located in the center) and typically do not vary from manufacturer to manufacturer. Enclosure device is installed horizontally in a row on a special metal profile (35 mm DIN-rail). Thus, they form one single entity, and may close the general panel, which leaves access to controls. The only exceptions are modular circuit breakers in a 60-26 (Tiraspol plant) width 12,5 mm.
They deserve special mention due to the fact that they allow to put in a limited-size Power Distribution Unit larger number of machines. counters These devices, designed to accommodate electricity. If fifteen years ago at the mention of this device, we were black device with a round glass, followed by a variable speed (depending on consumption), rotate the wheel with a label that Today things are not so simple. New technical solutions significantly revitalize the market, but before you consider specific models, we give some details on which can be classified into these products. The most important 'Class-sign' is the appropriate instrument Mains – different counts for three-phase 380 V for single-phase voltage of 220 V.