Benzene (C6H6, PhH) – an aromatic hydrocarbon. Included in the gasoline, widely used in industry is a feedstock for the production of drugs, various plastics, synthetic rubber, dyes. Benzene – a the most common chemicals and the most common aromatic compound. In the bulk plastics around 30% in rubber and latex – 66% of synthetic fibers – up to 80% are aromatic hydrocarbons, which is the ancestor of benzene. Benzene is a member of crude oil, but on an industrial scale for the most part is synthesized from its other components. Product features and specifications Benzene – a colorless liquid with a distinctive smell blurred. The melting temperature – 5,5 C, boiling point – 80,1 C, density – 0.879 g / cm , molecular weight – 78.11 g / mol.
With air form explosive mixtures, blends well with ethers, gasoline and other organic solvents with water forms a mixture with a boiling temperature 69,25 C. Water solubility 1.79 g / l (at 25 C). Toxic, Dangerous for the environment, flammable. Benzene composition refers to the unsaturated hydrocarbons (homologous series CnH2n-6), but unlike a number of hydrocarbons of ethylene C2H4, under stringent conditions exhibits properties typical of saturated hydrocarbons are more prone to substitution reactions. Properties of benzene explained by the presence in its structure, the conjugate -electron cloud.
Transport of benzene is carried out in tank cars and tank trucks, barges and in metal drums. Pumping from one vessel to another occurs in a closed system, since benzene is toxic. Depending on the technology are different brands of benzene. Benzene oil produced in the catalytic reforming of gasoline fractions catalytic hydrodealkylation toluene and xylene, as well as in the pyrolysis of crude oil. Depending on the technology and use the following marks of petroleum benzene: highest purification, purified and for synthesis. The standards for grades are regulated by GOST 9572-93. GOST 8448-61 applies to coal and shale benzene, obtained during thermal processing of coal and shale. Available in two grades: the synthesis and for nitration. Benzol coal is a mixture containing 81-85% of benzene, toluene, 10-16%, 1-4% of xylene. The impurity content is not regulated. GOST 5955-75 corresponds to benzene as a chemical reagent, applied in laboratories. C the current situation and outlook for the Russian market of benzene can be found in the report of the Academy of IKAR industrial markets "Market benzene in Russia."