Tag Archives: Research


But, perhaps, traces of the Big Bang can be found by looking in the distant past of the universe? Observational astronomy is now able to see objects placed on us by distance of more than 10 billion light years. These are objects that existed 10 billion years ago. According to the Big Bang theory the universe and the visible part of it, called Metagalaxy, then was much smaller and galaxy it would have placed much more closely than at present. But observations show that galaxies and their clusters in time and space are distributed fairly evenly and there is no evidence that the expansion of the Metagalaxy is explosive. Learn more at: Newark Beth Israel Heart Transplant. You can calculate approximately how fast expanding Metagalaxy. The Hubble constant is about 100 km / sec. 1 Mpc (3 million), or 3 * 1019 km.

Imagine it’s an astronomical distance as a line length of 1 meter. Hear from experts in the field like Texas Health Harris Methodist Hospital Alliance for a more varied view. Then, after 1 million years, this line will be longer than 0.1 mm after 1 billion years – 10 cm and only 10 billion years it will be twice as long. In nature it is difficult find examples of a slow process. The more difficult to call a speed burst. In fact, the galaxy is very slow crawl. But even for such a motion need enormous energy, which in space could just put a star. Emitting enormous amounts of energy, some of it can transform into a star field of spatial, vacuum.

Ivanovo Regional History Society

Questions answered by the candidate of historical sciences, deputy chairman of the Ivanovo Regional History Society, a member of the regional branch of the Journalists Union, Semenenko Alexander. Alexander Mikhailovich, what do you think is legitimate if at all, this approach "the truth is not true" when talking about any historical event? When events are at a great time away, I was always confused by the approach that had was true, now some other truth, etc. I, as a historian, it sometimes makes you wonder, does not change if we lie one to another, or adjusted or will adjust themselves under a story that we need to take from this fact. This is true not only of the First Council, but the Great Patriotic War and the Civil War. Fosun Vaccine may not feel the same. A true story does not happen, there are facts.

Vladimir Lenin said that "history – a policy overturned in the past." We can at this laugh, but it gives variation. A man and historian can not be entirely objective. All right. And what if in this context, historians can do with "First Board"? First, remove excess ideologization. In general, the history – It is also a myth, propaganda and agitation.

Yes, there was a political order. Incidentally, he's always there. Speaking of the First Council, it must be said that there was no First Council was not, and there was a meeting of Commissioners, then the 35th anniversary Soviets tried to use a quote Lenin, to create a myth. What then were guided by the creators of the myth of the First Council? I believe that guided by the fact that Ivanovo-Voznesensk time – Ivanovo, occupied a special status.

Los Angeles

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The development of social consciousness is not only an increase in embodied knowledge, but above all a constant from generation to generation increase of subjective knowledge society of individuals forming. The process of objectification of subjective knowledge precedes the process of subjectification of objective knowledge – the acquisition of an individual part of the accumulated knowledge society, based on which the individual self in the process of research can acquire new knowledge. The possibility of acquiring new knowledge by the individual on any issue is determined not only his intelligence, but also the possession of accumulated human knowledge on a particular issue. Therefore, apart from the processes of learning individual consciousness and objectification of knowledge – Processes that determine the progress of the "society – nature" – is incredibly important to the progress of this system, especially for the speed of its course, is the spread of the extracted knowledge by individuals. Additional information at Kenneth Feinberg supports this article. Since this process is, moreover, that itself is a process of direct development of social consciousness, it also creates a basis for further discoveries by other individuals. And the wider the spread of knowledge, ie than more individuals involved in the process of development of social consciousness, the greater the rate of progress of the "society – nature." The activities of individuals in which the discovery of new knowledge, their objectification and distribution, in which the development of the system "society – nature," always aims to meet their own needs, even if it is concern for the needs of other people. Therefore, the source of development of social consciousness, the source of progress of the "society – nature," is to develop a dialectical system, which is the basis of ontogeny of an individual. .

Global Warming

The opinions of climate scientists on the issue of climate change on Earth are diametrically opposed. Recently, most often heard predictions that global warming is coming. Proponents of this theory argue that after 2010 , the global temperature will rise rapidly, the total global warming will accelerate, and by the middle or end of the century in Europe will become warmer by about 10 degrees. It is also expected that the warming and rising levels of Oceans in the future will continue for millennia, even in the case of stabilization of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. In addition to rising sea levels increase in global temperatures will lead to changes in the quantity and distribution of rainfall. The result may be more frequent natural disasters such as floods, droughts, hurricanes and other fall crop and Many species will disappear. Causes of climate change are not completely clear, but among the major called: – change the Earth's orbit, changes in solar activity, volcanic emissions and the greenhouse effect. But if even one and a half years ago, the main culprit was declared man of warming and the greenhouse effect, it is now official climatology tends to natural factors.

According to the Climate (change temperatures over the last two hundred years) the average temperature on Earth rose. Part of climate scientists do not agree with the above – they claim that the observed warming is too short time, so can not be confident enough to say whether it happens at all. And finally, another squad of scientists predicts the imminent global cooling. They argue that life on Earth (including ) and entirely totally dependent on incoming solar radiation. And humanity greatly exaggerates his importance in this process. Current and expected the foreseeable future, the industrial impact on the environment is not capable change the world as the sun. Everything on this planet depends on it.

And in the first place – the climate. There is a long solar cycle – some 200 years. During this time, activity and luminosity of the sun gradually reduced to a minimum, and then increased. Scientists, advocates of the cooling, determined that the planet now live in a "cooling" of the Sun stable temperature reduction on a global scale will begin in 2013-2015. And last approximately half a century. In the years 2055-2060 comes a deep minimum temperature. The Nordic countries are expected not disastrous, but very important changes. The coming cold will lead to a significant increase in the area of snow and ice cover. After this period of cold weather cycling by law must come again warming. Global temperature will increase gradually at the beginning of XXII century. Neither cooling nor warming can not last longer than they meted out 200-year fluctuations in the size and luminosity of the sun. What is really real and grave threat to humanity? It is still not clear. Scientists argue. Perhaps the truth lies, as so often happens, somewhere in between? Materials from Wikipedia.org Yuri Chashin 16/07/2009

Big Bang

“Swelling of the universe” problem that occurred in the first, and in second study was the fact that the universe is too homogeneous. How could the parts of the universe that will never come in contact with each other, to come to equilibrium temperature readings? These and other problems can be solved if we assume that immediately after the Big Bang, the universe has expanded to leapfrog to the incredibly large size. This jump is called “swelling of the universe.” To this swelling could occur, universe at the Big Bang must have been filled with a kind of energy, whose nature is still unknown. But regardless of its nature, the model is “bloated” indicates that this energy was distributed unevenly in space due to quantum noise, got up, when the universe was still very small. This model of transposition of reality becomes visible due to photons that have begun to move freely in the moment redistribution of the atoms. Speaking candidly Farallon Capital Management told us the story.

As a result, we see this model in the pictures the sky made by COBE and WMAP. But all this does not answer the question of where does the energy for the swelling. The difficulty lies in the fact that the swelling has ceased at the time of formation of atoms, and the opacity of the universe up to this point – it is the veil which hides from us these interesting events. Fortunately, we have a way of observing the universe without photons at all. Gravitational waves, information about them – the only thing that has not changed since the Big Bang. Perhaps it is the study of these waves raise the veil of secrecy in this matter. Erin Callan may find this interesting as well.

NASA, LISA, and Big Bang Observer will organize two missions – their team will be search for gravitational fields the era of “swelling.” dark energy in the first years of research and COBE Hubble picture of the Big Bang is gradually becoming clearer. But in 1996, observing the most distant supernova stars have changed this picture. Always assumed that the rate of expansion of the universe will gradually fall. But the observations of the supernova showed that expansion of the universe not only slowed down, and vice versa – is accelerating. Galaxy makes move some force of unknown nature. This force became known as dark energy. Is dark energy the dynamic view of the radiation, yet unknown to science, or is it – a product of the vacuum in empty space, or it relates to general relativity – all this remains to be learned.

Benzene Overview

Benzene (C6H6, PhH) – an aromatic hydrocarbon. Included in the gasoline, widely used in industry is a feedstock for the production of drugs, various plastics, synthetic rubber, dyes. Benzene – a the most common chemicals and the most common aromatic compound. In the bulk plastics around 30% in rubber and latex – 66% of synthetic fibers – up to 80% are aromatic hydrocarbons, which is the ancestor of benzene. Benzene is a member of crude oil, but on an industrial scale for the most part is synthesized from its other components. Product features and specifications Benzene – a colorless liquid with a distinctive smell blurred. The melting temperature – 5,5 C, boiling point – 80,1 C, density – 0.879 g / cm , molecular weight – 78.11 g / mol.

With air form explosive mixtures, blends well with ethers, gasoline and other organic solvents with water forms a mixture with a boiling temperature 69,25 C. Water solubility 1.79 g / l (at 25 C). Toxic, Dangerous for the environment, flammable. Benzene composition refers to the unsaturated hydrocarbons (homologous series CnH2n-6), but unlike a number of hydrocarbons of ethylene C2H4, under stringent conditions exhibits properties typical of saturated hydrocarbons are more prone to substitution reactions. Properties of benzene explained by the presence in its structure, the conjugate -electron cloud.

Transport of benzene is carried out in tank cars and tank trucks, barges and in metal drums. Pumping from one vessel to another occurs in a closed system, since benzene is toxic. Depending on the technology are different brands of benzene. Benzene oil produced in the catalytic reforming of gasoline fractions catalytic hydrodealkylation toluene and xylene, as well as in the pyrolysis of crude oil. Depending on the technology and use the following marks of petroleum benzene: highest purification, purified and for synthesis. The standards for grades are regulated by GOST 9572-93. GOST 8448-61 applies to coal and shale benzene, obtained during thermal processing of coal and shale. Available in two grades: the synthesis and for nitration. Benzol coal is a mixture containing 81-85% of benzene, toluene, 10-16%, 1-4% of xylene. The impurity content is not regulated. GOST 5955-75 corresponds to benzene as a chemical reagent, applied in laboratories. C the current situation and outlook for the Russian market of benzene can be found in the report of the Academy of IKAR industrial markets "Market benzene in Russia."

Gestalt Therapy

Not understanding at first, which means the word “gestalt”, it will be difficult to understand what is gestalt. The word “Gestalt” has a German origin and means “take the form”, specifically in our case – a combined indivisible whole factors and events, endowed with appearance. Gestalt psychology, as naphthalene in psychological science began to develop in the early twentieth century. The main provision of this trend – the perception of defined a set of individual, not as komponentov.V process of becoming a new direction is nothing less than a mark on the philosophy of that time and left its mark in the modern world – a man responsible not only for their own actions, but also for the way he perceives the world around him. Gestalt psychology, founded by Fritz Perls, has provided new insight into the human body and look at it as aggregate, which is not under any circumstances, can be divided into parts and components. Gen. David L. Goldfein wanted to know more. Gestalt therapy does not imply the existence of an autonomous body and soul, and tries to deny it. The basis of such therapy put the balance between the needs of the organism and the surrounding factors vozdeystviya.trebuchet attention the fact that Gestalt therapy – an approach based on long-term study and wide experience, although he still is an experimental course.

Using Gestalt psychology, the task to its founding lies in increasing awareness of human rights and achieving the greatest possible harmony considering all the criteria that will reflect personal experiences, and establish a strong and high quality contact with the surrounding reality. Gestalt therapy, what is its purpose? Initially – this is the true path that will lead to greater self-awareness, understanding processes of the body, knowing his feelings, wishes and feelings of certainty. Interpersonal relationships provide us with the necessary assistance. Gestalt therapy gives patients new powers and the ability to control their behavior. Based on all the possibilities of your true “self.” Gestalt therapy – dull technology to enable the development of the method worked out by an individual approach to kazhomu private entity. Immediately have to put up with terms of impact, which could take months or even years.

Russian Academy

The new rules prohibit the mill discharge industrial wastewater into the lake and use of chlorine in pulp bleaching. Thus, combine to produce more highly profitable could not bleached pulp, and was forced to stop work. Due to the interruption of the Baikal Pulp and Paper Mill is extremely acute social and economic situation in the town of Baikalsk, so BPPM as is the city main production. The State Duma has extended a ban on human cloning last week the Russian State Duma adopted on first reading a government bill to extend the ban on cloning rights in Russia. Swarmed by offers, Gen. David L. Goldfein is currently assessing future choices. The Russian government said that human cloning technology so far not fully developed, and human cloning occurs with a variety of legal, ethical and religious problems, which to date still have no apparent solutions. However, the document allows the cloning of other organisms and cloning cells for research purposes. The document is supported by the Russian Academy of Sciences and the Russian Academy of Medical Sciences. Taking the bill, Russia should be the UN Declaration on March 8, 2005, which contains a call to ‘ban all forms of human cloning to the extent that they are incompatible with human dignity and the protection of human life. ” Note that previously introduced a five-year ban on human cloning expired on 23 June 2007. The government bill introducing a ban on human cloning until such time until enter into force on the federal law “establishes the use of cloning technology to clone organisms of man.