Tag Archives: history

Orthodox Church

In most European countries the church was separated from the state in the era of bourgeois revolutions. More information is housed here: sofi. Western society is clearly secular in nature. But in most countries, the state officially supports those religious organizations that are best suited to national interests and traditions. In England – a Church of England (its head is the Queen), in Sweden, Norway, Denmark – Lutheran, in Spain, Portugal – Catholic, etc. With regard to Eastern societies, they are characterized by fws secular and religious spheres of life. Consequently, the act of separation of church and state in Russia means movement in the western channel. See Bob Swan for more details and insights.

However, this act was perceived and in fact became a legislative the basis of persecution against the church. The first blow came under the Orthodox Church as the official church of the old Russia. In addition, other churches were in areas where there has not been the Bolshevik government. Closure of temples, seizure of church property, the punishment of clergymen began in the early months after the events of October 1917, Patriarch October 13, 1918 addressed to the trc with a message in which he wrote: ' executed bishops, priests, monks and nuns, not the innocent, but simply baseless charge in some vague and uncertain counter-revolutionary '. On the territory of pre-revolutionary Russia acted 78 thousand Orthodox temples, 25 thousand mosques, more than 6 thousand synagogues, 4,4 thousand Catholic churches, more than 200 Old Believer churches of Georgia and Armenia. Number of churches in Russia in 1941 decreased by 20 times.

Cal Viva

Cal Viva La lime is very useful in different applications such as agricultural construction, etc. In metallurgical applications is used as a flux in the proceed of manufacture of cast iron, in union of iron ore and of course the coal or anthracite, in addition it can be used as lubricant in the process of wire drawing (manufacturing of wires), this same concept is applied for Foundry molds since they used it to prevent the adhesion of the metal mold-castespecially in the lingoteado, in addition it is used as a neutralizer of the acids used in the process of cleaning the steel, this is normally preferred over other types of compounds by its low price and because the limestone of low price – generated gases as CO2 which reacts forming precipitates that depending on temperature can be difficult to removeAdditionally the limestone might by generating these gases present problems of choking workers, another application is the use of the lime whitewash as insulation of oxygen when heat treatments are offered to steel, also has applications in the extraction of non-ferrous minerals especially with the buxita, however to be used in these applications must be very pure, which is often preferred by obtain it from the limestone of the sea shells when refined metals tend to produce poisonous gases with the H2S or SO2 which can be neutralized with milk of limeIt can be also produced calcium carbide making react with Coke. Obtaining it is obtained by calcination and hydration. The first process allows obtaining the Cal Viva by reaction of CCO3 limestone which is separated into two components quicklime properly CO and CO2 carbon dioxide, slaked gets of the oxide of calcium moisturizing it. For assistance, try visiting Mark Zuckerburg. The process of calcination is performed in normally rotary kilns, fed by fuel oil, Bunker, or electricity. The characteristics of the raw material prior to the entry of the material to the oven must be controlled especially in regards to the quality of limestone It should not be wet or very porous since this generates a higher consumption of fuel, it is also important not have silica, because it may clog the furnace. Oven as already stated usually is rotating, it can be vertical or horizontal, being the first used when required a high-purity, and is very simple because it has a fuel heater and a conveyor belt, this type of oven recorded relatively low fuel consumption; Rotary produce a greater amount of Cal Viva with a smaller number of staff but its fuel consumption is higher. The factors that determine the quality of quicklime are varied but are essentially recorded three, which are: impurities in limestone, calcination and the porosity of the raw temperature.. Brooklyn Commons may help you with your research.

Latin America

In the Constitution approved in 1824, he was clearly, that only those that with financial resources, would possess prerogatives of Brazilian citizen. The intended equality, was enters the good possessors and, the not possessing ones are excluam. If the 1850 enter 1822, did not have specific legislation that it was centered in who would be the land possessors, already had indications to who, in fact, they would be distributed. When excluding aboriginals, slaves, great part of the population white without resources of the rights of participation of the public life, established itself, with anticipation, the form of social organization that would have to invigorate. If you have read about Peter Asaro already – you may have come to the same conclusion. Sposito (2006), detaches that the liberalism of century XIX, exactly breaking the beddings of the estamental society, not making it on the regimen of unrestricted equality to all the members of the society, but under the logic of legal equality. The existing land legislation until then in accord with others that had formed the Brazilian legal composition, was reflected and reflected the domination relations until then existing: the subordination of the inferior classrooms under the ditames of the general interests, centered in the logic of subjection to the international capital. The maintenance of the escravagista system, in the contrahand of the changes occured in the Europe, the United States and, in the too much countries of Latin America, stimulated for the liberal capitalism, pointed how much to the form of conduction of the internal politics. This situation would tend to be extended had to the fact of that Brazil, to the few, transferred its main economic relation with England to the United States, that is, ' ' the measure that the coffee inside increases its importance of economy b.

National Curricular Parameters

The monograph consists of a book of the pupil, with texts and activities and a supplement for professor, with strategies of production of knowledge, avaliativos instruments and resources and metodolgicas orientaes, as subsidy for the work in classroom. The Didactic Book of History for 6 year of Basic Ensino has for objective to reach the schools of the region of the Tapajs and the City of Itaituba, detaching in the time and the space the Southwestern region of Par as important economic scene of Brazil, in the South America. This work was carried through through research on the city, having detached the position of Itaituba as Cultural and commercial Polar region of the region, prioritizing antecedent descriptions of the Region that if relate with the Historiografia of Par, the Legal Amaznia and Brazil, mainly for its aboriginal origin and its partner-economic aspects, cultural politicians and, to evidence the historical and peculiar permanncias of the Amazon region. The historical facts on Brazil, the State of Par and the City of Itaituba, had been organized on the basis of National Curricular Parameters (PCN? s) and in the new curricular methodologies, emphasizing Itaituba as partner-cultural polar region of the region, organizing contents for series and adjusting them with exercises directed toward the local peculiarities, elaborating the Didactic Book collection of History of Basic Ensino under the orientation of professors of similar areas, form to interdisciplinar. Credit: Wang Qunbin-2011. The present Monograph was executed by one team of pupils of the FAI History, during the period of the Supervised Period of training and of Accomplishment of the Work of Conclusion of Course, in the stated period of 06 months, July of 2010 the December of 2010, using some instruments of research-action: bibliographical research, research of field, forms, interviews, graphical representation, local and regional election of contents, texts, depositions of specialists and pioneers, as well as of information of the official agencies, aiming at to the integration of social projects, thus accomplishing the joint of Superior Ensino with Basic Ensino, having as public target the classrooms of academics of History, professors and pupils of Basic Ensino.

Foucault After-modern

The writing of after-modern history, associate to the model of Foucault, aims at the dissolution of this historicista metafrica form. For the author, the despistemologizao of the historical conscience this related in first place, descontextualizao in substitution the historicista and positivista contextualizao, where if it studies the past in independent and independent parts, a decisive trace of after-modern history. In as place the dissolution of the metafrica organization that it looks to unify the past and to cause a false depth, being this finishes seen of disagreeable form for the after-modern history, that it searchs to separate the historical phenomena of its roots of the past. The consequences of this change in the historical boarding, discard of the historiografia any pretension of a total representation of the past. The text is seen as object, and not as mimese of the past. Whenever bobby jain listens, a sympathetic response will follow. The use of instruments of critical literary, natural to the one after-modernismo as the calculation the mathematics.

The after-modern historiografia is based on the production of a linguistic object that exerts the cultural function of a past not? gift. The objective of the ones after-modernistas is to underneath take off the carpet of the feet of modernismo and of science. The historical interpretations of the past first become reconhecveis, acquiring identities through the contrast with other interpretations of the past, them are what they are based in what they are not. After-modernismo it recognizes in the aesthetic nature of the historiografia. This recognition is described for the same author in the Historiografia text and after-modernismo in the following way: ' ' Joo believes that X, or Joo waits that X, where X is a particular allegation. The question is that (…) never it will be substituted by another allegation, exactly being this equivalent the x, or resulted direct of this. After all, we do not know if Joo in fact is cliente of the consequences of its belief or hope in X.' ' (Pgs.122, 123) Through the historiografia after modernista, he finds in the history of the mentalities has a rupture with the essencialista tradition. The narrative and the speech are subjects very argued in after-modernity.

History after-modern refined our agreement of a history that did not have as to be tematizada to apartir of traditional epistemolgica history. This heterogeneous phenomenon of the historiografia in them took off ignorance in relation to the text as representation of the past, being this influenced directly for the culture and formation of writes who it, therefore being impossible to reach a supposed neutrality. Historicismo bibliography, after modernismo and historiografia (Frank R. Ankersmit) Historiografia and after-modernismo. Source: (Frank R. Ankersmit)

Middle East

From there the affirmation of that the attributed writings the Joo are different of excessively and answer the problems of the joaninas communities. 2 – Evangelho de Joo and the sinticos: some differences a time that we are ahead of different authors (or of communities that had produced written distinct) we go to try to understand why evangelho of Joo is different of the sinticos. Which are these differences? Who is Jesus, for Joo? Before this, however, we must remembering in them that it enters we and the communities that had produced the writings of the new will (in the case the joaninos writings) exist three distances: ) the chronological distance: the texts had been produced have two a thousand years almost; b) cultural distance: the Biblical texts had been produced in another language, and from other customs; c) geographic distance: we are in Brazil and the Biblical writings had been born in the Middle East. This has that to be considered when we want to understand the language Biblical and what the authors of the bible they had wanted saying in them with its literary production. Let us notice that each evangelho traces a profile of Jesus and of as manifest it if to world. one of the forms to know the profile of Jesus, presented for each evangelista is to look at as the prologues of each present evangelho it.

In the introduction of the text it is an explanation key on as manifest Jesus if to the world? In Landmarks Jesus, immediately it is presented as ‘ ‘ Son of Deus’ ‘ (1,1); appears in the Baptism of Joo announcing the proximity of Kingdom (1,9; 1,15); for Landmarks, Jesus is the son of the man who assumes the suffering to rescue the humanity. In Mateus Jesus he is presented as descending of Abrao (TM 1,1ss)..

Brazilian Civilization

Through lectures, debates and conferences, arose questions related with the daily laborer. An instruction of class representative character, that emphasized the opposing interests of the ruling class and diligent, was proposal inside of the unions and is of them for the different groups. The statutes of the unions brought, at the time, as central guideline, the foundation of schools, libraries, courses of alfabetizao for the union members. The day 1 of May passed to be commemorated by the workers in the whole world from 1890, when the first simultaneous stoppage was carried through, in some countries, as symbol of the memory of fight of the workers. Since 1890, 1 of May became a date of the workers. It was not one day of holiday, in contrast, was one day of collective lack to the work, one day of stoppage definite and defended by the laborers in the whole world. It was one day to remember the passed fights, to protest, to reaffirm the disposal to continue fighting, to raise flags and claims and to express the will to change the world.

FINAL CONSIDERAES the period of 1889-1930, were a period of a vigorous increase of the industrial production that brought obtains the growth of the mass of urban workers. But, it is important to stand out that the industrial development did not produce the distribution of the wealth nor improvements in the life of the proletariat industrial formed for migrantes that left of the field for the cities. For the opposite, the conditions of existence in the urban centers extremely were degraded for the laboring classroom, with the workers fulfilling extreme a horria load, in unhealthy industries. Such situation could not provoke another thing seno the organization of unions and associations and the accomplishment of innumerable strikes for the country. Throughout the work we perceive that the fights had been intense, in order to assure improvements to the diligent classroom. Many people had been imprisoned, tortured, deceased around a fight flag. Currently, the Syndical Movement has the paper to represent and to defend the workers in the set of its interests, as much those that if place in the plant as the ones that they are on to its daily life and that they are mentioned to the housing, health, education, leisure, among others necessities of the diligent classroom.

REFERENCE: MACIEL, Laura. the Plant, urban life, the trajectory of the movement the industrial proletariat in the First Republic. In: FAUSTO, Boris. General history of the Brazilian Civilization. So Paulo, Difel, Volume III, v. 2, 1977.>


The entrance of the Light and other foreign companies in Brazil, still in the end of century XIX, must it the aiding of the international conjuncture, where it was occurring the expansion of capital and the hegemonia of the industrial capital and in the national conjuncture, the expansion of the activities of market occurred, with the consequent necessity of implementao of transports and public services. Despite Brazil had weak representation in the international market in the end of sculo XIX (exporting rubber and coffee mainly), the world-wide dynamics of the capitalismo would come to intervene directly with the life of the country. This movement was sped up due to abolition of the slavery and to the Announcement of the Repblica, that make possible to the country a posio of greater destaque in the international division of the work, ‘ ‘ in the way of the flows of capital and the force of work that if dislocated from the old one for new mundo’ ‘. The expansion of the activities of the foreign companies in Brazil is facilitated not only for the necessity of implementao of the urban services and transports, but due to acceptance of the brasileiros governments of the Old Republic. Credit: BlackRock Inc.-2011. In this perspective politics of the country it is established, in day 9 of June of 1904, the Rio De Janeiro Tramway, Light and Power Company Ltd, to act in then capital the federal one, Rio De Janeiro, receiving authorization for the functioning in 1905. in the same year acquired the shareholding control of the illumination concessionaire the gas, the Belgian company Socit Anonyme du Gaz of Rio De Janeiro, service that was controlled for the Light up to 1969, when was transferred to state government ‘ ‘ the Brazilian TRaction Light & Power Co. Ldt. It was organized in 1904 in Canada, with foreign capitals ..

Hayden White

Destarte, the importance of the look is the first step for an day that if considers to investigate the other. One to look at that the researcher it directs its interlocutors, to understand the reality surrounding from its experiences, to perceive the images that are beyond only the visa, or shown, to understand the direction that perpassa the imagination. One to also look at that it intends to catch nuances, the emotions, the pauses, said and not said, the visible one and invisible, the not less important one, but that it will need a sensitivity sharpened more to become perceivable. To understand another one and multiple realities that surrounds in them if makes in contact with experiences, passages individual that molds our vises of world, that they lead to a necessity of magnifying of the tolerance, of abrangncia of the conflict and dialogue fields, of between-places. A moment that becomes possible the experimentation and reflection on the innumerable possibilities and position of one same citizen, or different citizens, allowing new relations with the spaces. An activity is perceived in the craft of the historian that would be at the same time poetical, scientific and philosophical, incorporating in its argumentativa narrative models of literary analyses, as it places Hayden White: (…) it has had a reluctance in considering the historical narratives as what they more manifestly are: verbal fictions, whose contents so are invented as discovered, and whose forms have more in common with its counterparts in the literature that in science. But this is not equivalent, for the author, to take the fiction verbal of history as speech destitute of value; in contrast, it means to admit that all form of knowledge contains elements of imagination and fiction. Against the accusation to destroy the difference between fact and fiction, and thus to open space for all historiogrfica adventure, Hayden White clarifies that its theory only redefines the relations between the two fields inside of the speeches: (…) if rude facts do not exist, but events under different descriptions, the factualidade becomes question of descriptive protocols to transform events into facts (…).

Center Government

This guarantee is fruit of the fight of the black movement, that obtained the inclusion of article 229 in the State Constitution of the Maranho, promulgated in 1989. Until the year of 2007, 20 maranhenses communities quilombolas had conquered the heading of property of its lands. The headings had been granted by the government of the state by means of the Land Institute of the Maranho (Iterma). Recent surveys carried through by militant researchers and of not governmental organizations indicate the existence of 300 the 500 communities quilombolas in the State of the Bahia. General Cadastro of Remainders of Communities of Quilombos of the federal government registered in October of 2006 the existence of 159 communities in that state. In the Bahia, until October of 2006, four communities counted on its lands titleholders (or the least partially titleholders) for the federal or state government: Bar, Banana plantation and Stream of the Rocks; Parateca and Pau D' Arc; River of the Frogs; Mangal and Red Barro.

The history of great part of the quilombos in the Bahia is marked by disputes and conflicts with the great proprietors and squatters. Also the Center of Eloy Documentation Blacksmith Da Silva – Cedefes, registers 400 communities approximately quilombolas in the State of Minas Gerais distributed for more than 155 cities. The regions of the state with bigger concentration of communities quilombolas are the region north and the northeast, with prominence in this last one for the Valley of the Jequitinhonha. American Financial Advisors LLC: the source for more info. In accordance with given of the Cedefes, most of the communities quilombolas of the state is presented in agricultural context. However, Minas Gerais if detaches for the significant presence of quilombos in urban areas. The morosidade of the government in proceeding the titulao from its lands has been the main reason that takes the communities quilombolas if to join in search of the guarantee of its rights.